INTERVALS--ADAPTED RED LIGHT, GREEN LIGHT
I had a good idea for learning steps, skips and same intervals.
In a game much like red light, green light, have the teacher sing a step, skip or same note and students can take:
1 step for an interval step; 2 steps for an interval skip; 0 steps for same notes
If a student moves when they aren't supposed to, or if they step too many times, they are sent to the back of the room. The first student to make it to the teacher wins.
"I make two shakers (each has two plastic cups taped together on their top rims, with bells inside) and place them on a music stand that has been pushed down and laid flat. A student from each team stands on either side of the stand with their hands around the shakers.
"I show a card with two notes on a staff which show an interval. Since these are sixth graders it would be too hard to ask them to identify whether it is major or minor so they have to tell me if it is a third, fourth, unison, or octave.
"When the student has identified the interval, s/he shakes the shaker. The first to shake gets to answer, and must answer IMMEDIATELY. If the answer is correct that student's team gets a point. If it is wrong the other team's student gets to answer, (again - immediately) and if this student answers correctly, his/her team gets a point.
"I make sure all the students can see each card I hold up so they can practice and be able to do it when it is their turn. The two contestants cannot get help from the rest of their team. If a member of the team forgets him/herself and shouts out help, that team's contestant cannot answer."
GAME: MOUNTAIN CLIMBER
Some very creative campers designed a replica of the little yodeling mountain climber. Then the contestant had to listen to 10 intervals and guess them. For every interval they were off the yodeler climbed one step up the mountain the number of notes they were off by. If he didn't fall off the top, they won!
LESSON ON INTERVALS
Purpose: To build awareness of distance between pitches and learn how to determine the kind of interval given the written music.
A Lesson In Intervals
1. Harmony: a. What is it? Do any notes sound better together than others? Why or why not? What is 'good' or 'bad' harmony mean?
b.(Play some dissonant examples.) We might think this is not "good" harmony because we are used to hearing certain kinds of notes together. Actually, anything is possible.
c. Harmony is having other pitches played along with the melody.
a. What is an interval? (distance between 2 notes; demonstrate "distance" on staff between 2 notes
b. Are notes always the same distance apart?
(Draw 2 different pitches on a staff and demonstrate how to count lines and spaces to determine which interval it is;
1) Determine if note is space or line note
2) Count every line or space including the first note, the last note and every line or space in between.
Example: F(above middle C) up to B(above middle C):count the 'F' space(1), the G line(2), the A space(3), and the B line(4) - that makes four, hence A FOURTH!
3. (On board w/ students, do these examples : F up to A; F down to A'; G up to D;
G down to D' ; D up to B; etc., covering intervals between 2ds and 7ths)
Have students determine a couple of intervals with you.
"When you are singing a new song, it helps alot to know about how far to sing a skip from one note to the next."
4. Now take your worksheet out.
a. Look at the 1st line where it says: THIRDS.
Look at the clef. Where is DO? (If using numbers or letters, similar process); Where would a 3d above DO be? DO is in space one so count space 1` as "1," line 2 as "2," and space 2 as "3" SO ..... "3" = interval of a third.
Draw a whole note just to the right of DO in that space.
What syllable(solfeggio)or what note name is this?Since the syllable a 3d above; DO is MI, write "M" on the line to the right of DO. (If using note names or letter names, do appropriate example.) (Now do a few more examples.)
Now in your groups, complete this sheet. Please help teach and listen to each other.
(Teachers: convert this to a staff sheet; if using letter names, change solfeggio letters (D, M, etc.,) to staff letters)
1. DRAW A NOTE ABOVE or BELOW(or in the case of 'seconds' just to the right of the note)
THE NOTE ON THE STAFF USING THE 'INTERVAL' INDICATED
2. In the blank next to the pitch (below the staff), write in the pitch name (or letter name) of the note you add to the staff. Example: the first pitch the kids should fill in (a third above Doh) is Mi (space 2)
(Note: The O's represent whole note. The small 'o' indicates the note should be placed on the line it is touching.)
INTERVAL OF A:
----------Dm-----M s-------S t------- L d'
---------D f -----R s -------- L r ------- T m
---------M t----- F d' ----- L m ----- T f
----------R______F______ S______ T______
------ M____ F____ L____ T___
Draw the interval next to the note:
3d above; ---- 2d below; ------ sixth below;(this note)
---------- D_______ R_______ M_______ F________
If you have access to a keyboard or xylophone, have the students play parallel 2ds, 3ds, 4ths, etc., on the instrument. (ascending or descending scale: Example: play d-e (together) then e-f, then f-g then g-a etc.,)
NOW let's sing these intervals using your sheets. (On 4ths, one of the intervals is not a "perfect" fourth. Can you hear which one it is? This interval (FA up to TI) is DIMINISHED because it is a little larger than a perfect fourth so it is called an AUGMENTED 4th. (Same routine with fifths, but explain that the TI DOWN TO FA is a "DIMINISHED 5th.")
Explain some early harmony (church vocal music) used to consist of 2 voice parts that sang in "Parallel Fifths" (organum) [play an example on the piano] that were sung by groups of monks. Play an example of organum using music of that era sung by monks or nuns.
Recommended for listening: Bartok's "Game of Pairs" (different pairs of instruments play together at different intervals, ex.: parallel fourths) Suggestion: Put the rhythms on a chart of each duet for kids to follow Put melodies on chart for kids to follow Have kids do a first listen trying to identify the intervals (the instruments maintain these intervals thruout each section) Have kids perform an improvisation on xylophone of a certain interval. Possibility: Have kids identify which rhythm, melody goes with which instr.
Another listening exercise could be Gregorian chant, listening for specific intervals.
EXAMPLES OF FAMILIAR INTERVALS:
Second: m2 - jaws; M2-Happy Birthday, Do, a Deer, Frere Jacques; Chopsticks
m3-Brahm's Lullaby, Where O Where Has My Little Do Gone; M3 - Well I Come from AL, Jetsons; The first part of "Blue Danube" or
"When the Saints Go Marchin' In"
FOURTH: "Here Comes the Bride", O Cmas Tree, Amazing Grace, Taps
TRITONE: "Maria" from West Side Story; The Simpsons
FIFTH: The start of the Star Wars theme; Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star is a fifth. Descending 5th: "Feelings"
SIXTH: For a M6 "My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean"; M6- NBC; m6-(descend)Love Story
m7 - There's a Place For Us
MAJOR SIXTH: M6: My Bon....(My Bonnie lies over the ocean);
N...B....(from the peacock network...N...B...C!)
OCTAVE: P8 - Somewhere Over the Rainbow